Right Whale Paper Published
A paper by GMI marine scientists Amy Whitt, Kathleen Dudzinski, and Jennifer Laliberté has been published in the journal Endangered Species Research. The authors summarize right whale sightings and acoustic data collected from the first year-round study dedicated to marine mammals in New Jersey’s nearshore waters.
Cultural Resources TxDOT Win
The Cultural Resources group of the GMI Environmental Services Division was awarded an Archeological General Services contract by the Texas Department of Transportation in February. One of four awardees, GMI will be involved in archeological survey, test excavations for National Register eligibility determinations, and data recovery projects across the state of Texas.
Biological Inventory Study for Melrose AFR
GMI wildlife biologists, in conjunction with Cannon AFB and Melrose AFR, initiated surveys for a Biological Inventory Study of a 10,968 acre area of land gifted to Melrose AFR by the state of New Mexico.
GMI to Support Fishermen's Energy with Environmental Impact Efforts
As part of the Energy Department's broader efforts to launch an offshore wind industry in the United States, GMI will support the Fishermen's Energy team with R&D for the advancement of traditional thermal and video imaging systems related to the assessment of nocturnal animal (bird, bat) occurrence, strikes and behavior around offshore wind turbines.
GMI Researchers Contribute to Texas Archaeological Literature
Nancy Kenmotsu is a co-editor and author of a new book published by Texas A&M University Press: The Toyah Phase of Central Texas: Late Prehistoric Economic and Social Processes. The volume is about the hunter-gatherers living in central Texas from AD 1300 – 1700.
Estabrook Heads Cultural Resources Dept.
Following 20+ years working as a Project/Program Manager for several of the largest cultural resources firms in Florida, Rich Estabrook has joined GMI as Cultural Resources Program Manager in the Plano corporate office.
Archaeological field and laboratory research includes all aspects of investigation from reconnaissance to intensive survey and site testing. Full-scale excavations or mitigation measures are provided by in-house staff. Laboratory services include artifact identification, analysis, and description. Geo-Marine’s experience with pipeline projects and similar linear facilities has involved oil and gas pipelines, power utility corridors, transportation corridors, and fiber-optics rights-of-way. These linear projects have ranged from 10 miles to hundreds of miles in length.
The company can also conduct non-intrusive investigations using remote sensing equipment such as proton magnetometers, ground-penetrating radar, and electrical resistivity. Geo-Marine’s use of cutting edge technologies, predictive modeling, and sampling strategies reduce work loads, eliminate redundancy, and lower costs to achieve project goals effectively.
Cutting Edge Technologies
- Mobile 3D Laser Scanning
Archaeological reporting is supported by the integrated use of GPS and various software packages to provide detailed site maps, conduct quantitative data analysis, and maintain extensive databases. All archaeological investigations have been conducted according to the appropriate state and federal guidelines, including Sections 106 and 110 of the NHPA of 1966, as amended through 1992. Our team has experience in:
- Surveys and site evaluations
- Data recovery
- Archaeological monitoring
- Remote sensing
Archaeological testing of site 41DL391 in Dallas, Texas was conducted to determine the limits, density, and eligibility status for inclusion in the NRHP as part of EIS investigations. Backhoe trenching to locate the site at 3 to 3.7 m below the current flood plain surface was conducted prior to hand excavations. All hand excavated units were 1-x-1 m, 1-x-.5 m, and .5-x-.5 m in size. Special samples were collected for radiocarbon dating, molluscan identification, macrobotanical identification, and other interpretative analyses to aid in the eligibility determination of the site.
The investigations revealed two discrete living surfaces. Both of these living surfaces yielded very little material, but radiocarbon dating put one at approximately 1,000 years B.P. and the other between 940–700 B.P. Although the investigations yielded important information concerning the nature of subsistence patterns during this portion of the Late Holocene, the site yielded little else to clarify the relationship of the inhabitants of these foraging camps to the inhabitants of known sites within the region. The site was recommended as ineligible for inclusion in the National Register.
GMI archeologists excavated a 13-room pueblo settlement located on Fort Bliss in south-central New Mexico, about 15 miles north of El Paso, Texas. The pueblo, known as Madera Quemada, is situated on a terrace above Old Coe Lake playa, a small desert lakebed intermittently flooded by rainfall runoff from the Organ Mountains. The occupation of the pueblo occurred sometime between A.D. 1275 and 1450, a period that has been termed the El Paso phase in the regional prehistoric sequence. Madera Quemada is Spanish for “burned wood” and refers to the large quantities of burned wood roof beams and roof support posts found on the floors of several rooms.
Madera Quemada pueblo was covered by a hard, dense deposit of adobe. This helped protect the pueblo from the damaging effects of wind and water erosion and animal burrowing that is so common among other prehistoric sites in the desert setting of West Texas and Southern New Mexico. The pueblo is exceptionally well-preserved and numerous artifacts remain on the floors of rooms. The excellent preservation and research potential of the pueblo, combined with the fact that no El Paso phase pueblo had been professionally excavated for over 20 years, provided GMI archeologists with an exceptional opportunity to study how prehistoric pueblo groups adapted to the desert environment of the region.
The excavations at Madera Quemada pueblo were funded and supported by the Directorate of Environment, Fort Bliss, Texas
In 2003 under contract with the U.S. Navy, Atlantic Division, GMI conducted archaeological inventory and paleoenvironmental investigations within 1,200 acres of the U.S. Naval Station Guantanamo Bay, Cuba. The purpose of the work was to provide the Navy with an initial database for the formulation of a comprehensive historic preservation program for the station. Selected areas of the station perceived to have a high probability of containing evidence of prehistoric and historic occupation of the landform were inventoried.
As a result of the investigation, 19 Precolumbian sites spanning the Archaic through Ceramic periods and 22 sites associated with early Spanish colonial occupation (n=1), the Spanish American War Battle of Cuzco Wells (n=1), the initial 1904–1908 U.S. Navy development of the base (n=19), and Precolumbian/Spanish colonial occupations (n=1) were recorded. Macrobotanical analysis of flotation remains and soil micromorphology analysis of selected profiles from sampled Precolumbian sites yielded data critical to an understanding of the changing prehistoric environment. The primary result of the studies was an evaluation of the potential for additional archaeological sites and the need for systematic survey of portions of the installation.
GMI conducted a series of surveys for proposed locations of Cingular Wireless cell tower compounds, in various states. Each proposed cell tower survey involved archival research to review known sites and previous survey files. Site visits to each proposed cell tower location were conducted, with shovel testing and photodocumentation. Individual reports are submitted for each location at the end of fieldwork and analysis.
For the surveys conducted in Virginia, GMI was able to identify and register three new archaeological sites, two lithic raw material procurement sites in Madison (44MA193), and Louisa (44LS225) counties, Virginia a and a multi-component prehistoric and nineteenth century site in Stafford County, Virginia (44ST821). These newly documented archaeological sites have resulted in the re-location of the proposed towers in order to avoid impact to potentially significant cultural resources.